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[The Thunderbolts Project,Japan Division] エレクトリックユニバース  電気的宇宙論、プラズマ宇宙物理学、 電気的観察物理学、解説、翻訳、 深津 孝明

Saturn’s Strange Hot Spot Explained  土星の奇妙なホットスポットの説明 by Wal Thornhill

Saturn’s Strange Hot Spot Explained 

by Wal Thornhill | February 5, 2005 10:48 am


 [Mosaic false-color image of thermal heat emission from Saturn and its rings taken on February 4, 2004, with the Keck I telescope at 17.65-micron wavelength. ]
土星とその環からの熱放出のモザイク擬似カラー画像。2004 年 2 月 4 日にケック I 望遠鏡で 17.65 ミクロンの波長で撮影。  ]

This wavelength is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. 

The black square at 4-o'clock represents missing data. 
4 時の位置にある黒い四角は欠落データを表します。

[Image credit: W. M. Keck Observatory/NASA/JPL-G. Orton.]

The following excerpt is from the Keck Observatory News[1]:
以下の抜粋は ケック天文台ニュース[1] からの抜粋です:

MAUNA KEA (February 4, 2005) Astronomers using the Keck I telescope in Hawaii are learning much more about a strange, thermal “hot spot” on Saturn that is located at the tip of the planet’s south pole. 
マウナケア (2005 年 2 月 4 日) ハワイのケック I 望遠鏡を使用している天文学者たちは、土星の南極の先端に位置する土星の奇妙な熱「ホット スポット」についてさらに詳しく学んでいます。

In what the team is calling the sharpest thermal views of Saturn ever taken from the ground, the new set of infrared images suggest a warm polar vortex at Saturn’s south pole 
— the first to ever be discovered in the solar system. 

This warm polar cap is home to a distinct compact hot spot, believed to contain the highest measured temperatures on Saturn. 
この暖かい極冠には、明確なコンパクトなホット スポットがあり、土星で測定された最高温度が含まれていると考えられています。

A paper announcing the results appears in the Feb. 4th issue of “Science.”

A “polar vortex” is a persistent, large-scale weather pattern, likened to a jet stream on Earth that occurs in the upper atmosphere. 

On Earth, the Arctic Polar Vortex is typically located over eastern North America in Canada and plunges cold artic air to the Northern Plains in the United States. 

Earth’s Antarctic Polar Vortex, centered over Antarctica, is responsible for trapping air and creating unusual chemistry, such as the effects that create the “ozone hole.” 

Polar vortices are found on Earth, Jupiter, Mars and Venus, and are colder than their surroundings. 

But new images from the W. M. Keck Observatory show the first evidence of a polar vortex at much warmer temperatures. 

And the warmer, compact region at the pole itself is quite unusual.

“There is nothing like this compact warm cap in the Earth’s atmosphere,” said Dr. Glenn S. Orton, of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena and lead author of the paper describing the results. 

“Meteorologists have detected sudden warming of the pole, but on Earth this effect is very short-term. 
This phenomenon on Saturn is longer-lived because we’ve been seeing hints of it in our data for at least two years.”
土星のこの現象は、少なくとも 2 年間データでその兆候が見られてきたため、より長く続きます。」

The puzzle isn’t that Saturn’s south pole is warm; 
after all, it has been exposed to 15 years of continuous sunlight, having just reached its summer Solstice in late 2002. 
結局のところ、2002 年後半に夏至を迎えたばかりで、15 年間継続的に太陽光にさらされてきたのです。

But both the distinct boundary of a warm polar vortex some 30 degrees latitude from the southern pole and a very hot “tip” right at the pole were completely unexpected.
しかし、南極から緯度約 30 度にある暖かい極渦の明確な境界と、極点のすぐ近くにある非常に熱い「先端」の両方が完全に予想外でした。

‘If the increased southern temperatures are solely the result of seasonality, then the temperature should increase gradually with increasing latitude, but it doesn’t,’ added Dr. Orton. 

‘We see that the temperature increases abruptly by several degrees near 70 degrees south and again at 87 degrees south.’
「南緯 70 度付近で気温が数度急激に上昇し、南緯 87 度で再び上昇することがわかります。」

The abrupt temperature changes may be caused by a concentration of sunlight-absorbing particulates in the upper atmosphere which trap in heat at the stratosphere. 

This theory explains why the hot spot appears dark in visible light and contains the highest measured temperatures on the planet. 
この理論は、ホット スポットが可視光では暗く見え、地球上で最も高い測定温度が存在する理由を説明します。

However, this alone does not explain why the particles themselves are constrained to the general southern part of Saturn and particularly to a compact area near the tip of Saturn’s south pole. 

Forced downwelling of relatively dry air would explain this effect, which is consistent with other observations taken of the tropospheric clouds, but more observations are needed.

More details may be forthcoming from an infrared spectrometer on the joint NASA/ESA Cassini mission which is currently orbiting Saturn. 

The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measures continuous spectral information spanning the same wavelengths as the Keck observations, but the two experiments are expected to complement each other. 
複合赤外分光計 (CIRS) は、ケック観測と同じ波長にわたる連続スペクトル情報を測定しますが、2 つの実験は相互に補完すると期待されています。

Between March and May in 2005, the CIRS instrument on Cassini will be able to look at the south polar region in detail for the first time. 
2005 年の 3 月から 5 月にかけて、カッシーニの CIRS 機器は初めて南極地域を詳細に観察できるようになります。

The discovery of the hot spot at Saturn’s south pole has prompted the CIRS science team, one of whom is Dr. Orton, to spend more time looking at this area.

“One of the obvious questions is whether Saturn’s north pole is anomalously cold and whether a cold polar vortex has been established there,” added Dr. Orton.

 “This is a question that can only be answered by the Cassini’s CIRS experiment in the near term, as this region can not be seen from Earth using ground-based instruments.”

The report states the “warm polar vortex at Saturn’s south pole is the first to ever be discovered in the solar system.” 

Keck researchers don’t seem to have done their homework. Or maybe things that can’t be explained get forgotten! 
ケックの研究者たちは下調べをしていないようだ。 あるいは、説明できないことは忘れられてしまうのかもしれません!

Saturn’s “warm polar vortex” is NOT “the first to ever be discovered.” 

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) discovered a warm “giant vortex of surprisingly complex structure and behaviour located in the middle atmosphere at the north pole of the planet, with a similar feature presumed to exist at the south pole also.”*
イオニア金星探査機 (PVO) は、暖かい「惑星の北極の中大気中に位置する、驚くほど複雑な構造と挙動をもつ巨大な渦であり、同様の特徴が南極にも存在すると推定されている」ことを発見していました*。

 The above diagram shows the main characteristics of the Venusian polar dipole. 

The diameter of the collar is about 5000 km and the temperature contrast between the hottest part of the chevron and the coldest part of the collar is about 45 K. 
首輪の直径は約 5000 km、山形の最も熱い部分と最も冷たい部分の温度コントラストは約 45 K です。

[Credit: F. W. Taylor. Composite image: W. Thornhill.]

Just as was found in the very hot “tip” at the pole on Saturn, the polar vortex on Venus is the hottest spot in the planet’s upper atmosphere!
Professor Fred Taylor of the of the University of Oxford Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics Department wrote about the Venusian polar vortex:

“the absence of viable theories which can be tested, or in this case any theory at all, leaves us uncomfortably in doubt as to our basic ability to understand even gross features of planetary atmospheric circulations.”*
This situation will not be changed until the electrical nature of the universe is acknowledged and scientists studying the solar system and deep space are appropriately trained. 

The Venusian polar dipole is immediately recognizable to a plasma cosmologist. 

But plasma cosmology is a paradigm only recently recognized by the electrical engineering fraternity of the IEEE
しかし、プラズマ宇宙論は、IEEE の電気工学友愛団体によって最近になって認識されたパラダイムです。

No university on Earth presents a course in the subject. 

Metaphysics is preferred in cosmology over sound engineering principles.

The ELECTRIC UNIVERSE® takes plasma cosmology a step further in proposing that a star is primarily an electrical phenomenon, forming a focus within a galactic “glow discharge.” 
エレクトリック・ユニバース® は、プラズマ宇宙論をさらに一歩進めて、恒星は主に電気現象であり、銀河の「グロー放電」内に焦点を形成すると提案しています。

Planets are minor “electrodes” within a stellar discharge envelope. 

The electrical energy is delivered to stars and planets in the manner of a simple Faraday motor.
電気エネルギーは、単純なファラデー モーターの方法で恒星達や惑星に供給されます。


 [Schematic of the Faraday motor effect upon a planet (or star).]
[惑星 (または恒星) に対するファラデー モーターの影響の概略図。]

The electromotive power is deposited mostly in the upper atmosphere at mid to low latitudes and gives rise to its “super rotation.” 

That is, the atmosphere races around the planet faster than the planet turns. 

It is a phenomenon observed on Venus and Titan and remains unexplained by the usual atmospheric physics, which relies mainly on solar heating. 

It is the cause of the phenomenal winds on the gas giant planets in the outer solar system, where solar heating is minimal. 

It has implications for the jet streams and weather patterns on Earth as well.

It is obvious, looking at the diagram, that there is a concentrated current flow at the planet’s poles. 

Plasma cosmologists explain that electric current is transferred over vast distances in space by cosmic current filaments. 

And the filaments tend to organize into “twisted pairs” according to the Biot-Savart force law. 

It is known as the principle of “doubleness” in current-conducting plasmas. 

It is intuitively pleasing to see that Nature uses this (well-known to electrical engineers) twisted pair arrangement of conductors to minimize losses. Such filament pairs are called “Birkeland currents.”
自然がこの (電気技術者にはよく知られている) 導体のツイストペア配置を使用して損失を最小限に抑えていることは、直感的に喜ばしいことです。 このようなフィラメントのペアは「バークランド電流」と呼ばれます。

So we should expect to see evidence of the twisted pair configuration at the poles of Venus, if the input current is sufficiently strong and this model is correct. 

And that is precisely what was discovered. 

The two hot spots are the footprints of cosmic Birkeland currents. 

The Venusian polar dipole shows the precise configuration and motion of Birkeland current pairs in plasma discharge experiments. 

That includes a surrounding spiral vortex.

The enhanced infrared emission from the polar dipole is due to the dissipation of electrical energy in the upper atmosphere of Venus. 

The polar dipole has a variable rotation rate and it varies the position of its axis of rotation with respect to that of the planet. 

It was observed to move 500 km from the Venusian pole in less than a day and return just as quickly. 

The variable nature of the electrical input to Venus via the Sun and the snaking about of the Birkeland currents explain both these characteristics.

Of particular interest are the linear filaments sometimes seen connecting the opposite sides of the hot spots. 

Taylor writes:

“It is virtually impossible, even with complete license, to begin to speculate in any detail as to what mechanism could give rise to such a curious effect.”

The answer, in the ELECTRIC UNIVERSE® model is simple. 
エレクトリック・ユニバース® モデルにおける答えは簡単です。

They are a feature seen in simulations of the behavior between two interacting Birkeland current filaments where plasma becomes trapped in the elliptical core between them.**
これらは、相互作用する 2 つのバークランド電流フィラメント間の挙動のシミュレーションで見られる特徴であり、プラズマがそれらの間の楕円コアに閉じ込められます。**

〈Spiral galaxies are the grandest cosmic plasma discharge phenomena in the universe. The Venusian polar dipole exhibits the morphology of the early stages of development of a spiral galaxy from the interaction of two intergalactic Birkeland current streams. 〉
〈渦巻銀河は、宇宙で最も壮大な宇宙プラズマ放電現象です。 金星の極双極子は、2つの銀河間バークランド電流の相互作用から生じる渦巻銀河の発達の初期段階の形態を示します。  〉

And that includes a filamentary connection between the two current “hot spots” in the manner observed on Venus. 

The enormous scalability of plasma phenomena allow for such a comparison.

[* F. W. Taylor, “The Venusian Polar Dipole,” Middle Atmosphere of Venus, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1990, pp. 93-7.
See also: www.pparc.ac.uk/frontiers/pdf/19F1.pdf[2]
Professor F. W. Taylor is Halley Professor of Physics at Oxford University.
** Anthony L Peratt, “Physics of the Plasma Universe,” Springer-Verlag, 1991.]
Returning to Saturn’s polar very hot “tip”, it should be found on closer inspection to exhibit a similar structure to the Venusian polar dipole. 

Its compactness is due to the electromagnetic pinch effect where it enters Saturn’s atmosphere. 

The hot spot’s behavior should be variable like that on Venus and correlated with the appearance of Saturn’s ring spokes, which are a visible manifestation of a heightened equatorial discharge in that part of Saturn’s Faraday motor circuit. 

The ELECTRIC UNIVERSE® also predicts, experimentum crucis, that BOTH poles should be hot, not one hot and the other cold.
エレクトリック・ユニバース® は、実験的に、一方が熱くてもう一方が冷たいのではなく、両方の極が高温になるはずであると予測しています。

Similarly, I expect Titan to exhibit polar hot spots because its electrical response to its environment is very active and similar to that of Venus – as mentioned earlier, Titan’s atmosphere super rotates.

Electrically hyperactive Venus and Titan are both recent children of Saturn, carrying some of their parents’ excess charge.

〈Verification of any of these predictions should serve notice that plasma cosmology and the electric model of stars is the cosmology of the future.〉

Wal Thornhill

1.    Keck Observatory News: http://www2.keck.hawaii.edu/news/science/saturn/index.html
2.    www.pparc.ac.uk/frontiers/pdf/19F1.pdf: http://www.pparc.ac.uk/frontiers/pdf/19F1.pdf
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