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[The Thunderbolts Project,Japan Division] エレクトリックユニバース  電気的宇宙論、プラズマ宇宙物理学、 電気的観察物理学、解説、翻訳、 深津 孝明

ザ・サンダーボルツ勝手連 Cometary Asteroids 彗星的小惑星

May 18, 2011
In an Electric Universe, comets are thought to be rocks moving rapidly through the Solar System's force fields.

Comets are often called "dirty snowballs" by astronomers. 

However, various investigative missions, such as Giotto and Deep Impact, revealed them to be blackened, cratered, and fractured. 

No ice fields, reflective crust, or watery clouds were observed. 

The Giotto spacecraft's close approach to Halley's comet discovered the blackest object ever seen. 

The comet's energetic plumes blasted out from a dense nucleus.

Comet Tempel 1 resembled an asteroid more than a chunk of muddy slush. 
テンペル第 1 彗星は、泥の塊というよりは小惑星に似ていました。

Craters, boulders, and cliffs were observed
—nothing like a snowball venting. 

Water vapor was discovered near the comet, but there was too little ice on the surface to account for it.

Other comets defy convention: 
Shoemaker-Levy 9 exploded when it encountered Jupiter's magnetosphere, and the pieces did not expel the volatile compounds astronomers expected to see. 

Deep Space 1 flew by comet Borrelly in 2001, finding it hot and dry instead of cold and wet. 
ディープ・スペース 1 は 2001 年にボレリー彗星のそばを飛行し、寒くて湿っていた場所ではなく、暑くて乾燥していることがわかりました。

The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 found a great deal of dust, but no trace of water could be found on its surface.
ワイルド 2 彗星へのスターダストのミッションでは、大量の塵が発見されましたが、その表面には水の痕跡は見つかりませんでした。

Comets travel through a differential electric potential as they move toward the Sun. 

The variable electric fields cause visible glow discharges. 

Rather than "dirty snowballs" or even "snowy dirtballs," comets are electrically active, solid bodies.

Comets form plasma sheaths that can become comas, often more than a million kilometers in diameter. 
彗星はプラズマ・シース(さや)を形成し、コマ状態になる可能性があり、その直径は、100 万キロメートルを超えることもあります。

Plasma filaments connect comets with the Sun's electric field, generating "hot spots" on their surfaces. 

So hot that extreme ultraviolet light and X-rays were detected radiating from comet Hyakutake.

According to a recent press release, on December 11, 2010 asteroid 596 Scheila became much brighter than previously observed, forming a large C-shaped coma. 
最近のプレスリリースによると、2010 年 12 月 11 日、小惑星 596 シェイラは以前に観測されたよりもはるかに明るくなり、大きな C 字型のコマを形成しました。

The Swift space-based observatory did not find water vapor thought to be "normally" associated with comets. 

Instead, two dusty plume-like tails trailed behind the asteroid, subsequently fading over the next several months.

A Hubble Space Telescope image of 596 Scheila reveals a broad coma, along with a dust tail. 
ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡による 596 シェイラの画像では、塵の尾とともに広いコマが明らかになりました。

As team leader David Jewett said: 
“The Hubble data are most simply explained by the impact, at 11,000mph [17,700 km/h] of a previously unknown asteroid about 100 feet [30 metres] in diameter.”

The primary reason for thinking that 596 Scheila is an asteroid and not a comet is because there is no water vapor in its vicinity. 
596 シェイラが彗星ではなく小惑星であると考える主な理由は、その近くに水蒸気がないためです。

The team investigating the Deep Impact mission to comet Tempel 1 claimed that there was "lots of ice" ejected when the copper projectile hit the comet's surface, so it was expected that 596 Scheila would also have lots of ice if it was a comet. 

However, Electric Universe advocate Wal Thornhill took issue with that presumption just after Deep Impact:
“The flaw in the conventional approach is that only gas-phase chemical reactions and reactions induced by solar radiation (photolysis) are considered. 
The far more energetic molecular and atomic reactions due to plasma discharge sputtering of an electrically charged comet nucleus are not even contemplated...
The hydroxyl radical, OH, is the most abundant cometary radical...
It is chiefly the presence of this radical that leads to estimates of the amount of water ice sublimating from the comet nucleus.”

ヒドロ(=ハイドロ)キシル・ラジカル、OH は、彗星のラジカルの中で最も豊富です...

"The electric field near the comet nucleus is expected if a comet is a highly negatively charged body, relative to the solar wind...
So the presence of negative oxygen and other ions close to the comet nucleus is to be expected. 
Negative oxygen ions will be accelerated away from the comet in the cathode jets and combine with protons from the solar wind to form the observed OH radical at some distance from the nucleus
The important point is that the OH does not need to come from water ice on, or in, the comet."
重要な点は、OH が彗星の表面または内部の水の氷から来る必要はないということです。」

As mentioned in a previous Picture of the Day, there are several "Centaur objects" orbiting near the asteroid belt that demonstrate that indeterminate state between comet and asteroid. 2060 Chiron is classified as both comet and asteroid. 
以前の今日の写真で述べたように、小惑星帯の近くを周回するいくつかの「ケンタウルス天体」があり、彗星と小惑星の間の不確定な状態を示しています。  2060 カイロンは彗星と小惑星の両方に分類されます。

Chiron manifests a coma whenever it reaches its closest approach to the Sun, although it does not grow a tail. 

174P Echeclus displayed a coma in 2005, so it too is now classified as a cometary asteroid. 
174P エケクルスは 2005 年にコマ状態を示したため、現在は彗星的小惑星として分類されています。

At least ten Centaurs are known to have cometary activity at great heliocentric distance.

Proponents of mainstream viewpoints are slowly beginning to realize that asteroids and comets exist in a continuum: neither are strictly identical nor completely different from the other. 

When the Stardust mission returned to Earth with samples from the coma of comet Wild 2, scientists found that the material looked more like meteoric dust than what was expected from a dirty snowball.
スターダスト計画がワイルド 2 彗星の昏睡状態から採取したサンプルを携えて地球に帰還したとき、科学者たちは、その物質が汚れた雪玉から予想されるものよりも隕石の塵のように見えることを発見しました。

Stardust also found that the coma of Wild 2 contained the "signature" of water vapor, although the farther from the surface of the comet it was, the greater the amount of vapor it saw. 
スターダストはまた、ワイルド 2 のコマ状態に水蒸気の「特徴」が含まれていることを発見しましたが、彗星の表面から遠ざかるほど水蒸気の量は多くなりました。

Whatever water or hydroxyl compounds found in cometary comas are probably created there, as Wal Thornhill has explained: 
ionized oxygen from the comet reacts with hydrogen ions streaming out from the Sun. 

No "jets" of water vapor spew from comets, and no icy plains have ever been observed. 

It is electric effects that are seen. 

Discharges and arcs form the comet phenomena.

Exposing an asteroid to an intense electric field over time will most likely create a comet.

Stephen Smith