[The Thunderbolts Project, Japan Division]公式ブログ Takaaki Fukatsu’s blog

[The Thunderbolts Project,Japan Division] エレクトリックユニバース  電気的宇宙論、プラズマ宇宙物理学、 電気的観察物理学、解説、翻訳、 深津 孝明

ザ・サンダーボルツ勝手連 Andromeda's Mother アンドロメダの母

カシオペア A として知られる爆発した電気二重層の残骸。中性子星と呼ばれる理論上の(架空の)存在の芸術家の印象を伴います。


Mar 02, 2011
Rather than searching for exotic explanations, this celestial object can best be described using plasma physics. 

According to a recent announcement from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the so-called "supernova remnant" Cassiopeia A (or "Cas A") harbors a strange passenger within the neutron star that is supposed to inhabit its interior, a form of superconductor known as a superfluid.
チャンドラ X 線天文台からの最近の発表によると、いわゆる「超新星残骸」カシオペア A (または「Cas A」) は、その内部に存在すると考えられている中性子星の中に、超伝導体の一種である奇妙な乗客を抱えていて、超流体として知られています。

As theory suggests, neutron stars form when large stars exhaust their fuel supplies as they age. 

Once a star with about five times the mass of our Sun accumulates enough thermonuclear "ash" composed of non-fusible elements like iron in its core, it undergoes a catastrophic implosion. 

Since nuclear reactions can no longer be sustained, the star becomes the victim of its own gravity field. 

The star's outer surface collapses inward at tremendous speed, rebounding off the dense core material. 

The star then erupts outward in a supernova explosion, blasting its outer layers into space, releasing X-rays, gamma rays, and extreme ultraviolet.
その後、この恒星は超新星爆発で外側に向かって噴出し、その外層が宇宙に吹き飛ばされ、X 線、ガンマ線、極紫外線が放出されます。

Depending on the mass of the star, the remaining stellar core material might remain as a hot, white dwarf star, or if it is large enough, the gravity field will pull all the electrons out of their atomic orbits and squeeze them into the nucleus, forming neutrons. 

The star will become what astrophysicists call a "neutron star" with unbelievable density and gravitational attraction. 

It is commonly said that a teaspoon of neutron star stuff would posses an inertial mass in the billions of tons. 

A neutron star is thought to exist at the center of the Cas A nebular cloud.
中性子星はCas A星雲の中心に存在すると考えられています。

In the image at the top of the page, various frequencies of X-rays are shown in red, green, and blue. 
ページの上部の画像では、X 線のさまざまな周波数が赤、緑、青で示されています。

Since X-rays are invisible, the colors are arbitrary and are either assigned by a computer program or a graphic interpreter who's job is to create images for public release. 
X 線は目に見えないため、色は任意であり、コンピュータ プログラムまたは一般公開用の画像を作成する仕事をしているグラフィック通訳によって割り当てられます。

The interesting thing about the X-ray distribution is that they are englobing the central star, with tendrils of plasma interconnecting other glowing regions.
X 線の分布について興味深い点は、X 線が中心星を取り囲み、プラズマの蔓(つる)が他の輝く領域と相互接続していることです。

In a previous Picture of the Day, the fact that supernova explosions emit X-rays was used to support the contention that supernovae are not kinetic events resulting from gravitational collapse, rebound, or shockwaves. 
以前の「今日の写真」では、超新星爆発が X 線を放出するという事実は、超新星が重力崩縮、反発、または衝撃波によって生じる運動学的事象ではないという主張を裏付けるために使用されました。

Instead, they are electrical in nature, with behavior that cannot be calculated based on simple Newtonian mechanics. 

Rather, plasma physics and the action of electrodynamic forces should be brought to bear in order to unlock their puzzles.

It is a principle of science that one should begin with the simple and then continue to the more complex if the situation warrants that step. 

2 + 2 = 4 does not require algebraic equations to solve it. 
2 + 2 = 4 を解くのに代数方程式は必要ありません。

If the foundational precepts of Electric Universe theory, based on well-established, Nobel-vetted work by dedicated researchers in the physics of high-energy plasma provides concise, laboratory replicated answers to the puzzle of supernovae, then this writer submits that that is the most logical place to begin an exploration.

Although Electric Universe responses to the Chandra team's announcement provide a sober minded explanation, what is it that the researchers themselves conclude?

As the artist's impression at the top if the page indicates, they conclude that a neutron star, something never observed by any telescope, has a crust (orange) and a core (red). 
ページの上部にあるアーティストの感想が示すように、彼らは、どの望遠鏡でも観測されたことのない中性子星には地殻 (オレンジ色) と核 (赤色) があると結論付けています。

The core temperatures are estimated to be a billion degrees Celsius. 

The blue rays are supposed to be neutrinos escaping from the neutron star, causing it to cool off, forming a neutron superfluid.

A research team leader, Peter Shternin of the Ioffe Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia said: 
"The rapid cooling in Cas A’s neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and superconducting material."
「チャンドラで見られた、Cas Aの中性子星の急速な冷却は、これらの中性子星の中心が実際に超流動性と超伝導性の物質でできていることを示す最初の直接的な証拠です。」

The remainder of the press release contains what appears to be sheer speculation involving the predictions of mathematical models and how mathematical entities like neutron stars ought to behave. 

If the astronomical community was not so serious about their contentions, it would be tempting to think they were being ironic.

Contrasting the Electric Universe perspective with that of consensus science can be instructive. 

In the first sense there is simplicity, experimental evidence, mathematical illustration backed by laboratory analysis: 
explanations that can be communicated easily to almost any audience. 

In the second, arcane mathematical reifications are placed onto a stage created out of computer models: 
characters acting out scripted roles.
2 番目では、難解な数学的具体化がコンピューター モデルから作成されたステージ上に配置されます:

Neutron stars can never be experimentally verified.

The scalable nature of plasma's electrical and physical properties is critical when it comes to investigating the cosmos. 

In the laboratory, effects that model those in space can be created. 

Gravity's effects are not scalable in the laboratory. 

Gravitational force falls off with the square of the distance, where the attraction between electrified filaments is linear and is up to 39 orders of magnitude greater. 
重力は距離の二乗に比例して減少し、帯電したフィラメント間の引力は線形(比例)であり、最大 39 桁大きくなります。

Gravity is too weak to model.

Virtual models operating within computer algorithms have replaced direct observation in many ways. 

Models are used to support the existence of yet more models. 

Models are used to build other models, which, in turn, are used to "confirm" further models. 
Physics used to mean investigating the nature and properties of matter and energy. 

Instead, astrophysics has become an apprentice to mathematics.

Stephen Smith