[The Thunderbolts Project, Japan Division]公式ブログ Takaaki Fukatsu’s blog

[The Thunderbolts Project,Japan Division] エレクトリックユニバース  電気的宇宙論、プラズマ宇宙物理学、 電気的観察物理学、解説、翻訳、 深津 孝明

ザ・サンダーボルツ勝手連 Far Distance Run Around 遥かな遠距離のランアラウンド(かけっこ)


Jan 28, 2011
Redshift theory inhibits new research into the age and size of the Universe

Two major points in Big Bang theory are that redshift is proportional to distance and that it also indicates velocity. 

It is assumed that the larger an object's redshift is the farther away it is and the faster it is moving away from the observer. 

Those two ideas led to the commonly held belief that the Universe is expanding.
これらの 2 つの考えは、宇宙が膨張しているという一般的な信念につながりました。

Astronomer Edwin Hubble, based on his own observations, as well as those of Vesto Slipher, believed that he had observed remote galaxies receding from the Milky Way in 1929. 
天文学者エドウィン・ハッブルは、彼自身の観測とヴェスト・スリファーの観測に基づいて、1929 年に天の川から遠方の銀河が遠ざかるのを観測したと信じていました。

His greatest surprise was not the recession itself, but the apparent high velocities associated with it. 

It seemed as if some galaxies were moving away at thousands of kilometers per second.

Spectrograms from Hubble's galactic images appeared to indicate a "redshift" of light frequencies. 

He adapted the Doppler effect (after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler) to the spectra of various galaxies. 
彼はドップラー効果 (オーストリアの物理学者クリスチャン・ドップラーにならって) をさまざまな銀河のスペクトルに適応させました。

His thought was that the change in location of "Fraunhofer lines" (for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer) demonstrated a shift toward the red end of the spectrum because of galactic recessional velocity.
彼の考えでは、「フラウンホーファー・ライン」(ドイツの物理学者ジョセフ・フォン・フラウンホーファー) の位置の変化は、銀河の後退速度によるスペクトルの赤端へのシフトを示しているというものでした。

Fraunhofer lines occur at certain regions in the spectrum because different elements absorb unique light frequencies. 

If they are in a different location, then they must be Doppler-shifted from the element's velocity. 

Hubble's conclusion created the foundation for galaxy-scale distance calculations and their supposed recessional velocities. 

Some galaxies are said to be receding at over 90 percent of light-speed.
一部の銀河は、光速の 90% 以上で後退していると言われています。

Although many observations contradict the consensus view, and have been doing so for 40 years or more, those data are ignored or marginalized. 

High redshift quasars have been located in axial alignment with galaxies at substantially lower redshift. 

Sometimes they are connected to those lower redshift galaxies by "bridges" of glowing gas and dust.

According to a recent press release, the Hubble Space Telescope has recorded the image of a galaxy over 13 billion light-years distant, making it the farthest object from Earth ever seen. 
最近のプレス リリースによると、ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡は、130億光年以上離れた銀河の画像を記録し、これまでに見られた地球から最も遠い物体になりました。

As Rychard Bouwens, co-author of the report in the science journal Nature article said: 
"These observations provide us with our best insights yet into the earlier primeval objects that have yet to be found."

In other Picture of the Day articles, the current theories of large-scale structure that are based on cosmological distance assumptions have been brought to question. 

Astronomer Halton Arp, for instance, interprets galactic redshift to be an indicator of age and not distance.
たとえば、天文学者の ハルトン・アープは、銀河の赤方偏移は距離ではなく年齢の指標であると解釈しています。

Electric Universe theory proposes that galaxy clusters are Birkeland current z-pinches in superclusters that make up a "superfamily" hierarchy. 
電気宇宙理論では、銀河団は、「スーパー・ファミリー」階層を構成するスーパー・クラスター内のバークランド電流 z ピンチであると提案されています。

Birkeland currents occur in a "nest" of double helices: 
each filament of electric current is a tube consisting of filament pairs that spiral around a common axis. 

Therefore, galaxy clusters are composed of individual galaxies, while stars make up the galaxies.

Electric currents charge and discharge vast concentrations of plasma at every scale from star to supercluster, causing some z-pinches to overload. 
電流は、恒星からスーパー・クラスターまでのあらゆるスケールで膨大な濃度のプラズマを充電および放電し、一部の z ピンチを過負荷にします。

In that case, another plasma blob gets ejected from the overcharged galactic parent, forming a quasar and distributing the current load over a larger area. 

Arp wrote:
"The typical case is that the largest galaxy in a cluster is a radio E, and the other bright galaxies in this cluster are aligned on either side of this central galaxy along the line of elongation of the radio components. 
It is argued that this general physical phenomenon can only be explained by having the line of galaxies, or their progenitors, ejected from the central galaxy along with the radio emitting material."

Halton Arp's work prompts the question: how big and how old is the Universe if redshift readings are not reliable indicators of distance?

Stephen Smith